This basic sample illustrates how FEA is used to validate a flange design that cannot be calculated with standard VIII-1 Appendix 2 code rules due to the shape of its hub. Standard Appendix 2 loads are applied and assessed against the rules of ASME VIII-2 for full code compliance.
Heat exchangers are often very large models. In order to simplify them for FEA we usually remove all of the tubes and replace them with simulated springs. This significantly reduces the complexity of the mesh.